---. 1977. 1985. McGuire extended the idea that persuasion stopped with attitude change by recognizing that to achieve persuadee action at a later time, retention of the message was necessary. Bostrum and N.H. Westley. Eine abschließende und vollständige Beantwortung der aufgeworfenen Fragen ist einerseits aufgrund der zahlreich vorhandenen Begriffsdefinitionen und theoretischen Ansätzen nicht möglich, andererseits war es auch nicht die Zielsetzung dieses Beitrages eine wie auch immer geartete umfassende „Super-Theorie“ der Propaganda vorzustellen. Jowett/O`Donnell 2006, 31-32) Dabei muss die Beeinflussung nicht zwingend negativ für den beeinflussten Empfänger sein. Naisbitt, J. Communication Yearbook 14. Radio Research, 1942-43. Carlson, J. Nationwide industrial efforts were mounted with great haste, and the support of civilians who worked in industry was enlisted. "The Uses and Dependency Model of Mass Communication." Dependency theory also recognizes that more urban and industrialized societies have more dependency on the media, and as social change and conflict increases so does public dependency on the media. "Attitude Effects of mere Exposure." Ein Empfänger verhält sich gegenüber völlig neuen Verhaltensanforderungen aber relativ resistent. If a subject's perception of a message falls within the latitude of acceptance, he/she tends to perceive the message closer to his/her position than it actually is, which results in an assimilation effect. A new development has been to measure attitudes toward behavior and intentions to carry out a behavior. (vgl. Merton and Lazarsfeld summarized the nature of effect studies in Studies in Radio and Film Propaganda (1968). Als Beispiele für Weiße Propaganda können etwa nationale Veranstaltungen, die auf Patriotismus abzielen, genannt werden. "The Structure and the Function of Communication in Society." Yet they, too, resisted change due to confidence in existing attitudes. PLAY. The concept of attitudes was so central to research that Allport said, "attitude is probably the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary American social psychology" (p. 784). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. There was widespread concern about the power of the developing forms of mass media, for some people believed that the mass media had extensive, direct, and powerful effects on attitude and behaviour change. http://www3.ndr.de/ndrtv_pages_std/0,3147,OID3852398_REF2488,00.html)   in diese Kategorie fällt, muss im Einzelfall anhand der genannten Kriterien entschieden werden. Sind so z. They concluded that a positive correlation between fear-arousing messages and attitude change might exist when certain potentially intervening variables are taken into account. London: Hutchinson. Anderson. These principles are abstracted from Jowett & O'Donnell. He reduced the subject of communication research to four categories: (a) who, (b) said what, (c) to whom, and (d) with what effect. Zimbardo and Leippe (1991) extended this idea with their review of studies of subject exposure to stimuli that were previously liked or disliked. For example, stimuli for experiments related to violence in media range from single scenes to specifically prepared sequences. Berger and H. Chaffee. First, it seems safe to say that communication effects are the greatest where the message is in line with the existing opinions, beliefs, and dispositions of the receivers. E.D. Bussemer 2005, 60), Sinn und Zweck von Propaganda ist also immer, zu versuchen das Verhalten des/der Rezipienten auf Wahrnehmungs-, Handlungs- und/oder Erkenntnisebene im Sinne des Propagandisten zu verändern und damit vor allem dessen eigene Bedürfnisse zu erfüllen: (vgl. Im Rahmen des Schwerpunktes zur Propaganda soll in diesem Beitrag die Darstellung der grundlegenden Strukturen ihren Platz finden. 45 (2000). The other prominent British researcher is Stuart Hall who began his work at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) at the University of Birmingham. In Lazarsfeld and Stanton (1944), pp. L.R. There were seven task forces and five investigative teams who produced 15 volumes of reports. Lazarsfeld, P. 1941. Marketing research also began to be developed in the 1920s. 1987. 140. 1948. Propaganda versucht zu diesem Zweck eine „[…]Veränderung in der subjektiven Realitätskonstruktion[…]“ (Bussemer 2005, 30) vorzunehmen. Lindzey, G., and E. Aronson. How people relate to other's behavior is determined by perception, motivation, needs, and goals. 1982. The results were published by Hovland, Lumsdaine, and Sheffield in 1949 in a work entitled Experiments on Mass Communication, which also included other experiments on communication issues. Festinger said that once a person has made an important decision, he or she is in a committed state. Bogardus, E.S. Doch wie sieht er aus – dieser ominöse „Knopf“ auf den es zu drücken gilt? "Attitudes and Cognitive Organization." 105-45. Recruitment into the religious cult of the Unification Church of Korean Reverend Sun Myung Moon, otherwise known as "Moonies," includes an invitation to a free or inexpensive dinner or week-end retreat. Both the Allies and the Germans circulated false atrocity stories. Another research breakthrough occurred during the same era along with the development of new survey techniques for studying the interrelationship between the media and persuasion in natural settings over time. In 1918, Thomas and Znaniecki defined social psychology as the study of attitudes. Wartime propaganda in America and abroad turned out to be very skilful, highly coordinated, and quite powerful, according to its audiences. A systematic approach to analyzing propaganda, including an in-depth look at rhetoric, theory, methodology, and evaluation, helps students analyze propaganda. 1968. "Remarks on Administrative and Critical Communications Research." The elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) examines centralized processing of information for attitude formation on the basis of a person's motivation to do so as well as the person's abilities to engage in message and issue-related thinking. Deflecting source model: Beim deflecting source model wird die Glaubwürdigkeit der Nachricht dadurch hergestellt, dass der eigentliche Absender (P) die Nachricht (M) einem vorgeschobenen Absender (P1) übermittelt. The intensity of ego-involvement produces a wide latitude of rejection. Ideas related to political loyalty, race, and religion tend to remain stable over time and resistant to influence. Ball-Rokeach, S.J., and M.L. Laboratory and field studies reviewed in Television and Behavior (Pearl, Bouthilet, & Lazar, 1982) indicate that behavior such as friendliness, cooperation, delay of gratification, and generosity could be enhanced by exposure to relevant television content. New York: Warner. Als ein Beispiel für schwarze Propaganda kann Radio freies Ungarn genannt werden. Alwit and A.A. Mitchell. Berkowitz said it was possible for subjects to behave aggressively in later situations if the fantasy situation on film or television seemed justified. In contrast, the one-sided message brought about greater attitude change among those who initially supported prolonging the war. They compared this data with the key issues presented in television news, newspapers, and news magazines and found a startlingly high relationship. Although few television characters are seen smoking, there were no instances of anti-smoking sentiments expressed. New York: Pergamon Press. (vgl. "The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile no. Jowett and O’Donnell’s Definition of Propaganda ... Overview of the Book Chapter 2. The news media had not told the voters what to think, but they had told them what to think about. The overall link between media violence against women and real violence against women is as yet inconclusive, but researchers are actively exploring it in both laboratory and field studies. Kelly. The view of media as cultural agent and the construction of meaning by the users of the media is a view that tries to understand human behavior rather than explain it. Research on the effects of filmed pornography (Donnerstein & Malamuth, 1984) has suggested a possible link between pornography and violence against women.